Biography of Corneille 科奈依生平

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Sunday, September 5, 2010, William Cornelius Van Beverloo died. It now rests in the cemetery of Auvers-sur-Oise (FR) alongside Vincent Van Gogh.

Cornelius is one of the greatest masters of painting of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Co-founder in 1948 of the COBRA movement, he will constantly throughout his career to experiment, to invent and imagine freely.

Known worldwide as the painter of Color, Bird, Woman, Nature and music are the themes of his masterly work. Lord humanist and lover of life, he told us once again:

“In my long life as a painter, I just lived with passion, and if it again, I would do the same thing. In my life, I made a colorful beautiful day.”

William Cornelius Van Beverloo was born in 1922 of Dutch parents in Liège (BE), where he spent many years of his childhood. In 1943, after a short stay at the Academy of Fine Arts in Amsterdam where he is teaching too academic, it abandons the traditional curriculum to experiment and express themselves freely. Unfortunately the war broke out and casts its shadow toll on the world. Against all odds and despite the hell of war, Cornelius continued to paint. Upon release, he decided to forget this terrible time and embraces freedom with both hands.
In 1947 he was invited to exhibit his paintings in Budapest. He discovered the works of Klee and P. J. encounter Doucet. Back in the Netherlands, he created in 1948 with K. Appel and Constant, the Experimentelle Groep Amsterdam and Reflex. On November 8 of that year, as opposed to the surrealism of A. Breton too theorizing, Corneille with his two companions Dutch, Belgian artists C. Dotremont and J. Noiret and Danish artist A. Jorn, based in Paris formed the group COBRA.

This experimental art movement became one of the most important movements after the war. COBRA is a movement or a collective of artists. It’s a mindset and a lifestyle. Michel Ragon wrote about it: “COBRA is less likely that a happy occasion for meetings.” The group COBRA gives life to characters sometimes close to primitive art, folk art inspired by mainly northern. The bestiary also borrowed Tales and Fables traditional Danish. COBRA artists also invent creatures and critters inspired by children’s drawings or insane. The important thing for Cornelius and his compatriots is to express themselves freely through colors, materials and words, without rules or constraints. Corneille painted mostly, but his plastic works are often accompanied by poems. For three years, “Cobra” working alone or collectively, intensively. They create unique works, many print publications (COBRA, Little Cobra, the tiny COBRA) and organize workshops (10 rue de la Paille in Brussels), discussion meetings (on Saturdays from Atlan in Paris) and Exhibition brings together international artists. Deprivation, disease and strife terminate COBRA November 6, 1951 with their latest international exhibition of experimental art held at the Museums of Fine Arts in Liege. As so well expressed C. Dotremont, COBRA was “the common market of misery and exuberance.” This exhibition has been very little to do with the spirit COBRA, inviting artists to the concerns and different backgrounds (eg Giacometti), but it can once again shake the vision of an art too institutional.

After the group disbanded, every player COBRA follows a personal path, keeping contact with each other. They sometimes continue to create works “four hands”, as J. Noiret T. Wolvecamp and carry out joint projects. Cornelius works extensively with Hugo Claus, one of his closest friends and collaborators COBRA, providing the texts of the latter drawings, engravings or lithographs, and vice versa. The list of artists with whom Corneille worked very long because he is an artist of extreme generosity, always eager for novelty.

From 50 years, having already immigrated to Paris, he began exhibiting in major galleries such as Galerie Maeght in Paris (1950), Colette Allendy Gallery (1954), Galerie Ariel (1961), and in New York in the Lefebre Gallery (1962). It also outlines in museums like the Museum of Curacao (1954), the Palace of Fine Arts, Brussels, Belgium (1956) or at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam in the Netherlands (1956 and 1960). Since then, his works are exhibited and referenced in the largest museums in the world.

Internationally known for his paintings and drawings, Corneille throughout his career and experienced discovered new medium for expression. What counts for him is “creativity comes first!” He writes with great talent, poetry, art critics. His Journal of the Tower (1976), accompanied by his beautiful drawings, is a great example. The photograph is also a very important place in his life (nude photographs, photographs of Africa). Great graphic, Corneille also creates lithographs, aquagravures, engravings, as well as sculptures (ceramic, bronze, resin, glass), jewelry artist, dishes made of Limoges porcelain, tapestries, and so on, making it accessible to more his works. Great innovator, he is one of the first artists to create works for the promotion of a bank (ABN AMRO, the Netherlands) or organization (Greenpeace Netherlands). Eager to experiment, always kept a playful child, he projects his drawings on pens, cars, a balloon, ties, and even a tram in Amsterdam. In the words so beautifully his wife, Natasha van Beverloo-Corneille, inspired by the famous phrase of A. Rimbaud, “Cornelius is an eternal traveler, a man with soles of wind with one foot still in the sandbox, a young great artist.”

Cornelius has always been a free bird. He never stays long in one place. Crow, the bird was traveling around the world: Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Mexico, Brazil, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Bali, China, Japan, Israel, USA, Italy, Hungary, Denmark, etc.  Each trip is an opportunity to meet new people, new inspirations. In 1995, he moved with his family, however, in the region of Val d’Oise in Villiers-Adam, where he still lives today. In light of this region has always attracted famous painters. From his studio in the fields he would not leave for anything, let soak Corneille by light and birdsong. It is considered by many to be the painter of light color “light for a painter, he says, is happiness! “. Villiers-Adam, just a few miles of Auvers-sur-Oise, he keeps close to his compatriot Van Gogh which he has always been an admirer.

Although we can see a continuity in its work since its inception to the present, the work of Corneille is composed of several distinct periods of each other: the period of youth until 1947 when the portrait was important, the period “COBRA” from 1948 to 1951, very imaginative with strange characters and a colorful bestiary, the “post-COBRA” often described as the period of lyrical abstraction from 1951 to 1955, and the period of mineralogical 1955 to 1965, he calls himself “geological”, where the compositions and shapes reminiscent of the Hoggar desert. Michel Ragon speaks of “abstract landscape” figurative period from 1970 when women, birds and snakes intermingle. There are indeed in the works of Corneille the main themes of the Woman (painting “Reflection in the mirror,” 1980), Bird (painting “The Big Bird”, 1950), Cat (painting “Women in cat “, 1982) as well as those of the Stars (lithograph” the sun and the bird “-1999), Music (aquagravure” Homage to Mozart “) and Nature (painting “La Mer is a garden “, 1959 ). His favorite themes are expressed alone or in dialogue with one or more of these themes. We are witnessing a new period 2007-2008 in his work, a synthesis of its different periods, where abstract compositions, “Cornelius color” elements such as woman’s head, the bird, are found together in works always full of poetry. In late 2008, to crown the retrospective “Cornelius, a painter solar Auvers-sur-Oise” and reiterated its commitment to the region, Corneille magnifies Auvers-sur-Oise with the work “The Church of Auvers”. To honor her passion for music and many works created around such composers as Mozart, Beethoven, etc.., The Music Festival of Auvers-sur-Oise invite Corneille as an artist of honor.

For over 70 years, Corneille has ingeniously combined all forms of personal pictorial vocabulary, colorful and captivating. His work is a call to dream and freedom.Sunday, September 5, 2010, the bird-Corneille is leaving leaving behind a masterful work to pass on to present and future generations.

Nicolas Delamotte-Legrand

星期日,2010年9月5日,科奈依(紀堯姆·科內利斯·凡·貝韋洛)逝世。現葬於與文森特凡高為鄰的墓地,瓦茲河畔。

科奈依是二十及二十一世紀最偉大的繪畫大師之一,亦是1948年的眼鏡蛇運動的創始人之一,他整個生命裏不斷進行藝術實驗、發明和自由想像,是世界知名的色彩畫家,其精湛的主題包括鳥,女人,自然和音樂等,以人為本和熱愛生活的他告訴我們:

「作為一個畫家,我只會熱情地生活,如果再選擇一次,我也會做同樣的事情。在我的生命裏,我每天都在創造多姿多彩的世界。」

科奈依於 1922年出生在比利時列日,荷蘭籍父母,在那裡他度過了多年的童年歲月。 1943年,在阿姆斯特丹美術學院短暫停留,但他認爲那裡太學院派,因此停止了傳統的課程,自由地進行藝術實驗。不幸地,戰爭爆發,人們生活在戰爭的影子下,科奈依克服一切困難,不管戰爭的影響,繼續作畫。獲釋後,他決定忘記這可怕的日子,用雙手擁抱自由。

1947年,他被邀請在布達佩斯展出他的畫作,在那認識到克利、杜塞特等大師的藝術作品。1948年,他回到荷蘭,與阿佩爾和康斯坦特 (K.Appel and Constant) ,成立了阿姆斯特丹藝術實驗團體和反射藝術運動。同年11月8日,由於反對布列塔尼的超現實主義太理論化,科奈依與他的兩位荷蘭同伴,以及比利時詩人多特蒙 (Christian Dotremont) 、約瑟夫·諾瓦雷 (Joseph Noiret) 和丹麥藝術家阿斯蓋·喬恩 (Asger Jorn) ,在巴黎組織了眼鏡蛇 (CoBrA) ,大戰後的藝術家對在傳統社會持懷疑論,眼鏡蛇的年輕藝術家們體會到,有必要建立一項奠基於自由的實驗精神和樂觀的生態學之新藝術。

這個實驗性藝術運動成為戰後最重要的藝術運動之一,它是一個藝術運動或一個藝術家的團體,亦是一種心態和生活方式。米歇爾·夏貢 (Micheal Ragon) 寫道:「眼鏡蛇不太可能成爲嚴肅會議上的喜樂場合。」眼鏡蛇的藝術元素靈感來自北歐的原始藝術和民間藝術,還借用了丹麥傳統的動物寓言故事。眼鏡蛇藝術家們創造了一些奇怪的生物,靈感來自兒童或是精神病人的繪畫,最重要的是,科奈依和他的同伴能夠不受拘促地透過色彩、物料和文字自由表達自己,科奈依以繪畫居多,其作品往往伴隨著詩句。三年來,眼鏡蛇藝術家們單獨或團體集中地工作,他們創造出獨特的作品,印刷許多出版物,舉辦工作坊(在布魯塞爾)和研討會(逢星期六在巴黎),其展覽匯集了許多國際藝術家。可惜,貧困、疾病和衝突結束了眼鏡蛇。在11月6日1951年,他們在列日美術博物館舉辦了最後一次國際性的實驗藝術展覽,多特蒙形容眼鏡蛇是「苦難和繁榮的共同市場」,是次展覽展出很少關於眼鏡蛇精神的作品,邀請的藝術家來自不同背景和主題(如賈科梅蒂),但它可以一次再次動搖過於體制化的藝術視野。組織解散後,每個成員各有其路向,相互保持著聯繫,他們有時會繼續創造團體作品和開展合作計劃。科奈依常與雨果·莫里斯·朱利安·克勞斯(Hugo Claus)合作,一位他最親密的朋友和眼鏡蛇合作者,其後來亦為科奈依的素描,雕刻或版畫提供文本。藝術家們與科奈依合作了很長時間,是因為他是一位極端慷慨和總是渴望新奇的藝術家。

從 1950年起,科奈依移居至巴黎,他開始在巴黎瑪格畫廊(1950年)、科萊特亞朗迪畫廊(1954年)、沙龍畫廊(1961年),紐約萊菲博瑞畫廊(1962年)等主要畫廊展出。其後,還在庫拉索博物館(1954年)、比利時布魯塞爾美術宮(1956年)、荷蘭阿姆斯特丹市立博物館(1956年和1960年)舉辦過展覽。自那時起,他的作品被世界各地大型博物館展覽和引用。他的畫作國際性知名,在整個職業生涯中,科奈依不斷嘗試利用新媒介表達自己,大衆對他的形容是「創意至上」。他的寫作如出自天才,詩人或是藝術評論家手筆,其雜誌《Journal of the Tower》(1976年)伴隨著美麗的插畫便是一個很好的例子。攝影在他生活中也是不可或缺的部份(裸體照片,非洲照片等),科奈依亦是平面設計師,他還創作了版畫、水性打印以及雕塑(陶瓷,青銅,樹脂,玻璃)作品,同時亦有設計珠寶、利摩日瓷器、掛毯等,使其作品在不同媒介中得以展現。作爲偉大的創新者,他是第一位藝術家為荷蘭銀行或荷蘭綠色和平組織的宣傳做創作,他的藝術圖案還印製在鋼筆、汽車、氣球,甚至阿姆斯特丹的電車上。科奈依渴望進行藝術探索,保持一貫俏皮的孩子性格,他的妻子娜塔莎,引用保爾·魏爾倫 (Paul Verlaine) 形容阿蒂爾·蘭波 (Arthur Rimbaud) 的一句名言說:「科奈依是一個永不厭倦的旅客,縱使一隻腳在沙池中,仍能乘風而行的男人,是一個年輕偉大的藝術家。」

科奈依一直是自由翺翔的小鳥,他從來沒有長期停留在一個地方。他周遊過撒哈拉以南非洲,拉丁美洲,墨西哥,巴西,東南亞,印尼巴厘島,中國,日本,以色列,美國,意大利,匈牙利,丹麥等,每一個行程都是一個機會結識新朋友,新的靈感。 1995年,他舉家搬遷,然後,在法國瓦勒德瓦茲省的維利耶·亞當市一直生活,鑑於那地區一直吸引著著名畫家。科奈依沉醉於陽光和鳥鳴聲中,他甚少離開在田裡的工作室,作爲色彩畫家,他認爲「光線于畫家而言是幸福」。而維利耶·亞當市,與他一直推崇備至的梵高的墓地,瓦茲河畔只是相距短短幾英里。

雖然我們可以看到科奈依創作的連續性,但其作品還是可以劃分為以下幾段時期:青年時期直至1947年,對科奈依非常重要的是肖像畫。從 1948年到1951年「眼鏡蛇」期間,是奇怪字符和豐富多彩的動物寓言的盛行期,從 1951年到1955年期間的「後眼鏡蛇」期間經常被描述為抒情式抽象畫的豐盛期,1955年至1965年期間,他開始鑽研礦物學,自稱爲「地質學家」,其作品裏的構圖和形狀使人聯想起撒哈拉沙漠的情景。至1970年時,米歇爾·夏貢評其作品為「抽象式風景畫」形象化的時期:女性侗體,鳥類和蛇攙雜的圖像世界。科奈依大多作品的題材有女子(《鏡面中的反射》1980年),雀鳥(《大鳥》,1950年),貓(《貓裏的女人》,1982年),星系(版畫《太陽與鳥》,1999年),音樂(水性打印畫《向莫扎特致敬》)以及大自然(《海洋是一個花園》,1959年),這些他最喜愛的題材以單獨或多個形式,互相對話呈現在畫面裏,我們在他步入耄耋之年時,目睹一個新的時期:一個不同時期的綜合,抽象的構圖,屬於「科奈依色彩」的元素,如女人的頭、雀鳥,充滿詩意地呈現在一起。在2008年年底,人民回顧科奈依為「照耀著瓦茲河畔的畫家」,科奈依在其作品《瓦茲的聖堂》讚頌瓦茲河畔對音樂的熱情,如莫扎特、貝多芬等作曲家在此創作出許多傑作,瓦茲河畔音樂節更邀請科奈依作為榮譽藝術家。

逾七十年而來,科奈依多彩和迷人的圖案詞彙,巧妙地結合在他的作品裏,他的作品代表著夢想和自由。星期日,2010年9月5日,科奈依留下他出色的遺作,離開了我們。

尼古拉斯·德拉莫特·羅格朗

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